Attempts to resuscitate patients have changed dramatically throughout history with each version developed in hope of saving lives.
Today, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also known by the acronym CPR, can double or triple a cardiac arrest victim’s chance of survival -- if it is given immediately.
EARLY AGES - FLAGELLATION METHOD Rescuers whipped the victim with stinging nettles or struck with their hands or wet cloth to stimulate a response.
EARLY AGES - HEAT METHOD Warm ashes, hot water, burning dried animal excreta - anything hot - applied to abdomen of victim was thought to restore heat and life to cold body.
1530 - BELLOWS METHOD Fireplace bellows first used by the Swiss physician Paracelsus to introduce air into lungs. Variations used in Europe for 300 years.
1770 - INVERSION METHOD Lowering body expelled air from lungs. Inspiration resulted when pressure removed by lifting victim. Used in England, Europe and America with success in drowning cases.
1773 - BARREL METHOD Barrel movement back caused compression of chest for expiration. Barrel movement forward released pressure for inspiration. Used before 1767; may still be seen along waterfronts.
1803 - RUSSIAN METHOD Successful resuscitation by burial in snow. Modification was burying victim upright with head and chest exposed, water dashed on face.
1812 - TROTTING HORSE METHOD Body in contact with horse compressed chest and forced air out. When bounced off horse, chest expanded, air entered lungs. Used on European inland waterways in drowning cases.
1829 - LEROY METHOD First use of supine position. Pressure applied over chest and abdomen for expiration. Release of pressure caused inspiration.
1831 - DALRYMPLE METHOD Pulling cloth by two rescuers compressed chest to force air from lungs. Chest expanded when cloth released for inspiration.
1926 - EISENMENGER METHOD Air from electrically driven pump went into pressure and suction vessels in dome on patient's body and induced breathing.
1931 - POLE TOP METHOD (OESTERREICH) For linemen suffering electric shock, abdomen compressed inward and upward for expiration. Release of compression for inspiration.
1932 - HOLGER NIELSON METHOD With this back-pressure arm-lift method, rescuer pushes down on victim's back for expiration. Rocks backward and lifts victim's arm toward self for inspiration. Method still in use.
1958 - MOUTH-TO-MOUTH RESUSCITATION Rescuer blows into victim's mouth, keeping the head back and the nose pinched.
1960 - CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION Combination of chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Training required to perform effectively.